This lesson helps us understand what a perfect gerund is, & how to lớn use it in a sentence.

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What is a gerund in English?

A gerund is an ‘ing‘ form of a verb that functions as a noun. Ex – teaching, talking, speaking, etc.

Examples:

Dancing can help you chiến bại weight.Teaching is my passion.We love singing.She is very passionate about cooking.

What is a perfect gerund in English?

A perfect gerund is a gerund phrase that refers lớn a past kích hoạt and functions as a noun. It can be in both the active voice and the passive voice.

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perfect gerund in English

Perfect gerund structure (active voice): Having + past participle


The gerund phrase (in red) is working as the object of the preposition ‘about’. The subject (we) is asking their group not khổng lồ be upset about a past action. The perfect gerund is in the active voice as the subject of the main verb is the subject of the gerund phrase.


The subject is grateful for something (an action) they did in the past. Here too, the perfect gerund phrase is working as the object of the preposition ‘for‘.


The perfect gerund phrase is working as the object of the verb regret. The subject doesn’t regret an kích hoạt he performed in the past.


In this sentence, the subject admitted an action that had performed in the past. We can use (and generally use) a simple gerund for past actions too. Simple gerunds are usually used to lớn refer to lớn the present.


What gives you an upper hand here? The action that happened in the past, in form of a perfect gerund, gives the speaker an upper hand in the present.

Simple gerunds referring to past actions

We should not be upset about losing to them anymore.I am grateful for making the mistakes I made. It made me a better person.I don’t regret having slapped that guy.

Xem thêm: Giải Bài Tập Toán 11 Trang 132 Sgk Đại Số 11, Giải Bài Tập Đại Số 11 Trang 132

Last night, my driver admitted having stolen some cash from my wallet a few days back.

Perfect gerund structure (passive voice): Having + been + past participle


The perfect gerund phrase, here, is in the passive voice. The subject denied an action that he had received. In the passive voice, we focus on the receiver of the action, not the doer.


The subject regrets an action that he received in the past. The perfect gerund, here, is working as the direct object of the verb ‘regret‘.


Here, the gerund phrase is referring khổng lồ a past kích hoạt that worked out great for the speaker. The perfect gerund is working as the subject of the sentence.

Practice set!

Fill in the blanks with a perfect gerund in either the active voice or the passive voice, & share the answers in the phản hồi section below!

_____ gives me confidence to vày it better. (do)Do you regret ____ that night. (go)Are you ashamed of _____ multiple times. (have)He will never admit ______. (steal)I am proud of ______. (reject)

We, now, know what a perfect gerund is, how it looks like, and when khổng lồ use it. Vày share your question, query, or feedback in the bình luận section. And please nói qua the post with others lớn help them.

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FAQS


A perfect gerund is a gerund that refers to a past time. It refers to lớn a time that is prior khổng lồ the time shown by the main verb of the sentence. It is formed using ‘having + past participle (V3)’.

Examples:1. I am not sad about having lost the job.2. She denied having stolen the money.


Both the present participle và the perfect gerund look the same, but function differently in a sentence. They both are formed using ‘having + past participle (V3)‘. Chú ý that a perfect participle functions as an adjective/adverb, & a perfect gerund functions as a noun.

Examples:1. Having finished the work on time, Jon went out to lớn play. (perfect participle, working as an adverb)2. I am happy about having finished the work on time. (perfect gerund, working as a noun)


A simple gerund refers to the same time or close khổng lồ the time the main verb of the sentence refers to, & a perfect gerund refers khổng lồ a past time (a time that is prior lớn the time that the main verb refers to). It is also important to lưu ý that a simple gerund is more commonly used than a perfect gerund because we, in modern English, also use it to lớn refer lớn the past.

Xem thêm: Bàn Tay Bác Hồ Có Gì Đặc Biệt, Người Thợ Đồng Hồ ( Vietnamese Edition

Simple gerund structure (active voice): V1+ingPerfect gerund structure (active voice): Having + past participle (V3)

Simple gerund structure (passive voice): Being + past participle (V3)Perfect gerund structure (passive voice): Having + been + past participle (V3)


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Ashish found his first love—the English language—a few years back. Since then, he has been immersed in the language, breaking down the language và teaching it khổng lồ passionate English learners.He has a flair for listening to lớn the English language (podcasts, sitcoms, stories), observing the nuances, and making it easy for English learners. He is known for breaking down complex English topics and making them easy to lớn be understood.